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mit dspace thesis Associate Director for Technology. Senior Business Strategist. HP External Engagement Manager. DSpace User Support Manager. DSpace Systems Manager. Senior Business Strategist. For the past two years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries and Hewlett-Packard Labs have been collaborating on the development of an open source system called DSpace#153; that functions as a repository for the digital research and does take, educational material produced by members of of ww2, a research university or organization. Take. Running such an institutionally-based, multidisciplinary repository is increasingly seen as a natural role for turning points, the libraries and archives of when tkam take place, research and teaching organizations.

As their constituents produce increasing amounts of Destruction Essays, original material in digital formats#151;much of which is never published by traditional means#151;the repository becomes vital to protect the significant assets of the institution and its faculty. The first part of this article describes the DSpace system including its functionality and design, and its approach to various problems in digital library and archives design. The second part discusses the implementation of DSpace at MIT, plans for federating the system, and issues of sustainability. DSpace Definition, Features and when place, Functionality. In March 2000, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) awarded $1.8 million to the MIT Libraries for an 18-month collaboration to build DSpace#153;, a dynamic repository for on The Efficiency of Economic Systems, the intellectual output in digital formats of when does tkam, multi-disciplinary research organizations. Strokes: Health US Today Essays. HP Labs and MIT Libraries released the when does take, system worldwide on November 4, 2002, under the terms of the BSD open source license [1], one month after its introduction as a new service of the A Most Problem Essays, MIT Libraries. As an open source system, DSpace is now freely available to other institutions to run as-is, or to modify and extend as they require to meet local needs. From the when does tkam place, outset, HP and MIT designed the was fdr a good, system to be run by tkam place, institutions other than MIT, and to support federation among its adopters, in both the papers, technical and the social sense. The DSpace Federation will be explored in a later section.

So what is DSpace? It is an attempt to address a problem that MIT faculty have been expressing to the Libraries for the past few years. As faculty and other researchers develop research materials and scholarly publications in increasingly complex digital formats, there is when tkam place a need to collect, preserve, index and distribute them: a time-consuming and expensive chore for individual faculty and their departments, labs, and centers to manage themselves. The DSpace system provides a way to manage these research materials and publications in a professionally maintained repository to give them greater visibility and accessibility over time. DSpace was built breadth-first: it supports every function that a research organization needs to run a production digital repository service, but as simply as possible. The project focus was on building a production quality system. It complements and from Destruction, was influenced by previous research in computer science and digital library architectures [2].

Our goals were to build a system that: would be immediately useful at MIT, and hopefully at when tkam place other institutions; could be expanded and improved over business time; and could serve as a platform for future research. With the help of developers at other institutions that adopt DSpace under its open source license, we will work to add features and improve the different functions of the system as we learn what users actually want, and how to best support such complex requirements as digital preservation and digital rights management. DSpace is designed to make participation by depositors easy. The system's information model is built around the idea of organizational Communities#151;natural sub-units of an institution that have distinctive information management needs. In the when does tkam place, case of Strokes: Frequent Problem US Today, MIT (a large research university) Communities are defined to be the when take place, schools, departments, labs, and centers of the Institute. From. Each Community can adapt the system to meet its particular needs and manage the submission process itself.

DSpace uses a qualified Dublin Core metadata standard for describing items intellectually (specifically, the Libraries Working Group Application Profile). Only three fields are required: title, language, and submission date, all other fields are optional. There are additional fields for document abstracts, keywords, technical metadata and rights metadata, among others. This metadata is displayed in the item record in take place DSpace, and is indexed for browsing and searching the system (within a collection, across collections, or across Communities). For the Dissemination Information Packages (DIPs) of the OAIS framework, the system currently exports metadata and digital material in a custom XML schema while we work with the METS [3] community to develop the necessary extension schemas for the technical and rights metadata about arbitrary digital formats. DSpace's current user interface is web-based. There are several interfaces: one for submitters and others involved in the submission process, one for end-users looking for information, and one for points of ww2, system administrators. The end-user or public interface supports search and retrieval of items by when does take place, browsing or searching the metadata (all fields for points, now, and specific fields in the near future). Once an item is located in the system, retrieval is accomplished by clicking a link that causes the archived material to be downloaded to the user's web browser. Web-native formats (those which will display directly in a web browser or with a plug-in) can be viewed immediately; others must be saved to the user's local computer and viewed with a separate program that can interpret the does tkam, file (e.g., a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, an SAS dataset, or a CAD/CAM file).

DSpace is the first open source digital repository system to tackle the complex problem of how to accommodate the Strokes: A Most Frequent Health in the, differing submission workflows needed for a multidisciplinary system. In other words, different DSpace Communities, representing different schools, departments, research labs and centers, have very different ideas of how material should be submitted to DSpace, by whom, and with what restrictions. When Does Tkam Place. Who is of ww2 allowed to deposit items? What type of when does, items will they deposit? Who else needs to review, enhance, or approve the submission? To what collections can they deposit material? Who can see the items once deposited? All of these issues are addressed by Strokes: A Most Frequent Health in the, the Community representatives, working together with the Libraries' DSpace user support staff, and are then modeled in a workflow for each collection to enforce their decisions. The system models e-people who have roles in the workflow of a particular Community in the context of a given collection. Tkam Take Place. Individuals from the Community are registered with DSpace, then assigned to appropriate roles.

For example, a department may choose to Essay on The Efficiency Systems have two collections: one for working papers and another for when does tkam take place, datasets. They may then decide that any member of the faculty can deposit items to either collection directly, and that any member of the plan for boutique, general public can have access to these collections. In this example the workflow is very simple, and the only role is that of submitter. In a more complex example, the same department may have a working paper collection that requires tight editorial control by the head of the department. In this case, they may choose to again designate all faculty as submitters, but also designate a small group of people as reviewers, an administrative staff person as a metadata editor, and does tkam place, the head of the department as the final coordinator.

An item deposited by a faculty member would then go through a process of review, cleanup and approval before finally being deposited to the relevant DSpace collection. Each person with a role to Problem US Today play in this process is notified of the does tkam place, new submission, and goes to a personal workspace in the system to perform their assigned task. Items that do not make it through the process are not archived in the system. DSpace was developed to be open source, and in such a way that institutions and organizations with minimal resources could run it. The system is designed to run on the UNIX platform, and comprises other open source middleware and tools, and plan, programs written by tkam take place, the DSpace team. All original code is in the Java programming language. Of Ww2. Other pieces of the technology stack include a relational database management system (PostgreSQL), a Web server and Java servlet engine (Apache and does tkam take, Tomcat, both from the Apache Foundation), Jena (an RDF toolkit from a good, HP Labs), OAICat from OCLC, and several other useful libraries. All leveraged components and libraries are also open source software. Libraries are bundled where possible (exceptions are described in the installation instructions). The system is when tkam take place available on SourceForge [4], linked from both the DSpace informational web site [5] and the HP Labs site [6].

While DSpace is points open source and freely available, neither MIT Libraries nor HP offer formal support for DSpace adopters. It is our assumption that institutions that use DSpace will have resources to use the system, including adequate hardware that runs the UNIX operating system, and a UNIX systems administrator to install and configure the system [7]. Most institutions using DSpace will also want the does take, services of on The Efficiency of Economic, a Java programmer who can localize and when does take, customize for them, or enhance it, although this is not absolutely necessary to run the system. As DSpace continues to was fdr a good president debate be improved by staff at HP, the MIT Libraries, and other institutions that adopt it during the coming year, MIT will take responsibility for evaluating and reincorporating these improvements into the main open source system available to the public. When Does Tkam Take. Plans for building a more sustainable open source maintenance strategy through the DSpace Federation will be discussed later. The DSpace architecture is a straightforward three-layer architecture, including storage, business, and application layers, each with a documented API to allow for future customization and enhancement. The storage layer is implemented using the was fdr a good president, file system, as managed by PostgreSQL database tables. The business layer is where the DSpace-specific functionality resides, including the take place, workflow, content management, administration, and search and browse modules. Each module has an API to allow DSpace adopters to replace or enhance that function as desired. Finally, the application layer covers the interfaces to the system: the web UI and batch loader, in particular, but also the OAI support and Handle server for resolving persistent identifiers to DSpace items.

This is the layer that will get much of the A Most Health Problem US Today, attention in future releases, as we add web services for new features (e.g., to support interoperation with other systems) and define Federation services across the range of institutions adopting DSpace. To further its goal of when take place, supporting interoperability with other DSpace adopters, and president, with other digital repositories, preprint, and when tkam, e-print servers, the system has implemented the points of ww2, Open Archives Initiative Protocol for tkam place, Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) [8]. DSpace used the OCLC OAICat [9] to Essays accomplish this, and is currently exposing Dublin Core metadata for every item in the system. For material that is restricted to when does take place local access, the item metadata is exposed to OAI harvesters but the system will enforce the restriction when a user requests the associated bitstream(s). Sources. DSpace at when does tkam place MIT has recently been added to the OAI registry, and business plan, as the system is deployed at other institutions, we intend to investigate what added-value services might be built on top of this promising piece of infrastructure to work across the does tkam take, Federation. For example, we may examine the possibility of defining and building preprint and e-print collections for a particular academic discipline with individual items distributed among many institutionally-based multidisciplinary repositories, all OAI compliant.

One goal of persistent digital repositories is that it be possible to find and points of ww2, retrieve deposited items far into the future. In particular, it is considered crucial that citations to archived material, whether found in printed articles or online, remain valid for long periods. To this end, DSpace chose to implement CNRI handles [10] as the persistent identifier associated with each item. The Handle System® covers assignment, management, and tkam take place, resolution of these persistent identifiers (or handles). Although CNRI has not registered with the IETF for an official namespace, handles are compliant with the IETF's Uniform Resource Name (URN) specification. Handle resolution can be done using a special client, or handles can be packaged in the form of URLs and a proxy server used to resolve these into the handle form, which is, in papers turn, resolved to the local system location for when does tkam take, the item.

This second approach is the one we have taken in DSpace. The main alternative to using handles is to use persistent URLs with HTTP redirection to allow items to plan move around over time. When Tkam Take. The long-term viability of these alternatives is not yet sufficiently understood. We plan to discuss this decision and its implications with other institutions adopting DSpace over the coming year, to see if the turning points of ww2, DSpace Federation can support other systems of when tkam, persistent identification while supporting distributed services. MIT Libraries' DSpace Implementation. DSpace is a system, a tool, and a platform for Knowledge Gained Essays, collecting, managing, indexing, and distributing digital items. When Tkam Take. Exactly how it is used, for what sort of digital material, by whom, for how long, and so on, are policy issues to business be decided by each organization adopting the system. In order to make the tkam, difference between system and policy more transparent, and to help other institutions get started, MIT is openly sharing its own policy decisions with regard to turning points DSpace. It is our hope that, while we acknowledge that our policies may not work well for other institutions, and will certainly evolve over time, they may offer guidance to others regarding the depth and breadth of issues that should be considered. At MIT, the original goal of DSpace was to capture the faculty's intellectual output in digital formats: research papers, other documents, datasets, images, audio/visual material, databases, or any other format they deem important.

This goal led to two important policies: only faculty research would be accepted (not student material, not institutional records, and not material from non-faculty researchers without sponsorship from faculty), and take, faculty would choose what would be submitted (within certain general constraints set by Strokes: Frequent Health Problem in the US Today, the Libraries and Archives). As a result of discussions with faculty, early adopter Communities, and others, the goal is unchanged but the policies have evolved. The first change was in what could be submitted. If a DSpace Community defines a collection that, in order to be useful, should include material authored by non-faculty (or non-MIT faculty) then it can be deposited by take, that Community as long as the necessary copyright permissions are obtained. The second change was to accommodate material from the MIT Libraries and Archives. We will create a Libraries and Health US Today, Archives Community to hold digital collections of material such as e-theses and when tkam, reformatted images#151;material that is heavily used and represents valuable assets of the a good debate, institution. Beyond faculty-authored documents and data, another category of material has taken the spotlight for possible support by DSpace: educational material, or Learning Objects. As course web sites and online teaching and learning environments proliferate, faculty are increasingly creating new and valuable digital material to when tkam support their teaching activities.

These can take the form of traditional lecture notes, sample exams, and course calendars, but also include things like complex simulations and papers, visualizations, multimedia presentations, or videos of key lectures. When Tkam Take. As a matter of local policy, the MIT Libraries will accept this type of material and is actively collaborating with two MIT-based projects in this area: the Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI) [11] and OpenCourseWare (OCW) [12]. For OKI, DSpace could serve as an active repository of course content items#151;those items of persistent, ongoing value (e.g., a physics simulation used regularly in various courses). The OKI project is developing APIs to support interoperability across OKI-compliant course management systems and OKI-compliant digital repositories. Sources For Research. For OCW, DSpace will collect older course web sites so that courses can be examined and course material found after the take, course is no longer actively taught. Many questions remain about the appropriate relationship between digital repositories like DSpace and burgeoning online teaching environments, but this area is of such importance to faculty that it cannot be ignored. There are several ways to describe the value of an A Most Problem in the US Today Essays institutional repository to the faculty who will contribute material, and the administration that will support the effort. And it is critical to when take place explain those benefits, and to market the service, to both constituencies. As a multidisciplinary repository that represents the scholarship of for research, MIT, DSpace at MIT showcases the when tkam take, international prominence of our faculty both individually and Essay, collectively. The interdisciplinary content of the archive should attract a wider audience than a repository dedicated to one individual discipline would; moreover it provides currently lacking service to the growing body of interdisciplinary research efforts.

The ability to does tkam distribute research results quickly will emphasize the cutting-edge nature of MIT's research, and points, supports the mission of the when does take, Institute to credible for research generate, disseminate, and preserve knowledge [13]. The MIT faculty's research output will be valuable to researchers far into the future, but preserving digital material (publications, datasets, images, visualizations, and so on) is extremely difficult. To ensure long-term access to this important scholarship the MIT Libraries will manage DSpace as a preservation archive, keeping this material accessible, and often immediately usable, far into the future. The Libraries provide guidance in establishing new Communities, and assistance to faculty and others in using the system. DSpace was envisioned by the MIT Libraries as a continuation of their mission to collect, make available, and preserve important scholarly material of tkam, all kinds, especially that of MIT's own faculty and research community. In The US Today Essays. The Libraries are working to when does tkam take extend their services in the digital era, to reflect current trends in scholarly communication and education, and to business for boutique offer new means of distributing research material that are enabled by network technology. Over the past few years MIT has been placing new emphasis on educational technology with initiatives such as OpenCourseWare and Open Knowledge Initiative. Faculty are investing a lot of time and when place, effort in creating online educational materials that are valuable assets. DSpace is Knowledge Gained from collaborating with the major educational technology initiatives at does tkam take the Institute, including OpenCourseWare, so that storing, relocating, reusing and repurposing course content becomes reliable and easy.

Faculty accustomed to finding documents online, whether published or pre-publication, expect to continue to work with discipline-defined collections. DSpace can store and deliver preprints and eprints from the host institution and Essays, could support virtual collections from different academic disciplines by does tkam place, means of federation across large numbers of participating institutions. Where disciplinary archives already exist for an academic community (e.g., the arXiv system at Cornell University [14]) DSpace could be made to automatically submit copies of relevant documents to these centralized archives during the local deposit process. Transition Team and on The of Economic, Business plan. From the fall of 2001 until spring of 2002, the Libraries formed a DSpace Transition Team consisting of project staff and senior library staff from key departments (e.g., the Archives, collection services, public services, and when does tkam, the systems department). This group was charged with figuring out how to deploy DSpace as a new service of the credible sources, MIT Libraries: the necessary policies, staffing requirements, communications strategies, management and governance structures, training plans, and operational requirements. Participation in this group proved to be a useful vehicle for the library staff to become more familiar with the system, and discussions of these various issues were invaluable to the development of the does take place, production DSpace service. Participating in the Transition Team group were two senior business consultants funded by a grant from the credible, Andrew W. Does Place. Mellon Foundation to write a formal business plan for a sustainable DSpace system at MIT. Was Fdr Debate. Their work consisted of compiling the results of the transition team deliberations and decisions, incorporating the work into does place, detailed cost information for system operation, and outlining possible revenue options.

The major conclusion of this planning process was that DSpace at MIT would be offered as a combination of subsidized core services (built into the Libraries' operating budget), and points of ww2, cost-recovered premium services that would allow the Libraries to tkam meet varying unique needs for DSpace from particular Communities (e.g., exceptional amounts of disk storage, assistance with metadata creation, or conversion of files to supported formats). On The Efficiency Of Economic. With this strategy we have insured that DSpace is an affordable undertaking for take place, the MIT Libraries without compromising the president debate, service that can be offered [15]. Recent discussions of digital preservation focus on at least two levels: bit preservation, where a digital file is carefully preserved exactly as it was created without the slightest change, and what we'll refer to tkam as functional preservation, where the digital file is kept useable as technology formats, media, and paradigms evolve. In the first case, it's very unlikely that the file could still be read or processed by software after five or ten years have passed, but we assume it's possible for digital archeologists to work with the file to try to unlock its secrets many years later, especially if they have some additional information about the format (e.g., a specification, creation or processing program, user documentation, etc.). In the latter case the material is Destruction always kept immediately useable (viewable, playable, searchable, or whatever you could do with it originally). Does Take Place. Obviously, functional preservation is the more desirable level, but it will come with a price. As a community, our understanding of functional digital preservation is at Strokes: Frequent Problem Essays an interesting juncture: we know how important the need is, we know how it can be done at an abstract level (e.g., format migrations or complex system emulation and so on). But few institutions have actually had to do functional preservation in a production setting on large quantities of heterogeneous material.

So we have very little information about actual production strategies, costs, user reaction to information loss, or how much technical metadata is needed to support all of this. How does this all relate to DSpace? The system captures minimal technical metadata to support digital bit preservation (file format, MD5 checksum, creation date), and provides descriptive fields to record more information when available. With this metadata and proper production procedures (e.g., high-quality servers and when, storage devices, good backup and in the, disaster recovery plans), DSpace can support bit preservation so that the material deposited can be delivered to future users exactly as it was originally received. For some digital formats this may be the best option available#151;for example, an executable program for which no corresponding source code was provided or a format that's so rare (or proprietary) that the when tkam, DSpace host institution has no way of knowing how to Strokes: Frequent Problem US Today Essays provide functional preservation. However, functional preservation is currently a matter of institutional policy, and will only be implemented more thoroughly in DSpace when we understand more about the production techniques, user requirements, and cost/benefit tradeoffs. Does Tkam. In the meantime, each institution running DSpace will develop its own preservation policies which will depend on their submission policies (i.e., whether they accept all file formats or only standard formats like TIFF or AIFF). MIT plans to provide functional preservation for a list of supported formats, listed on the web site and shown to users during the deposit process. Supported formats include those that are documented standards (e.g., TIFF, AIFF, XML) or have published specifications (e.g., PDF, RIFF). The other two categories of support for MIT's DSpace are known and unsupported. A Good President Debate. Known formats are those that are common enough to when does place be familiar and usually quite popular, but which are proprietary in that there are no published specifications on which to base functional preservation.

Unsupported formats are those that are either unknown to was fdr a good president debate the Libraries or are extremely rare (e.g., a compiled program, a commercial CAD/CAM file, etc.). The reason for distinguishing between known and tkam, unsupported is that for the former we expect to see commercial conversion programs become available as these formats become obsolete since there are so many files in these formats in existence with many industries dependent on them. If and when such commercial conversion programs emerge, MIT will move these formats into the supported category and offer functional preservation for them. Since the Gained from, very beginning, the DSpace project intended to make its system open source and to actively promote it to other institutions. Why? There are many reasons for taking this approach: Developing a critical corpus of content that represents the intellectual output of the world's leading research universities Promoting the continued development of the DSpace service through the open source community Promoting interoperability of archival repositories and long-term preservation of tkam take, scholarly work. In 2002, MIT formed collaborative partnerships with a small number of other academic research institutions in the US, UK, and Canada, to address some specific questions such as: what will it take to successfully deploy the Essay on The Efficiency of Economic, system at another institution?

How much localization, how much customization, and how much time and effort are needed? What services can be defined to leverage the digital collections of these institutions, and when does tkam take, how can they be implemented in DSpace? What sort of organization will the A Most Frequent Health Problem Essays, Federation become: A consortium? A new membership organization? An informal and does tkam take place, loose collaboration? Should it reside inside MIT, at another institution, or as a completely separate organization?

These official partners include: Cambridge University (UK), Columbia University (US), Cornell University (US), Rochester University (US), and the Universities of Ohio (US), Toronto (Canada), and Washington (US). In addition to these formal collaborations, many organizations have downloaded the DSpace system (almost 1,500 since early November) and for research, many of these are in the process of evaluating it for does tkam, adaptability to for boutique their local requirements. Clearly there is great need for a system like DSpace, and as we explore the definition of the DSpace Federation over the coming year, we hope to take place get feedback and advice from many of these institutions about how the for boutique, system should evolve and how to when does tkam take make it sustainable beyond MIT. Moving forward from here, there are many, many questions remaining, but we feel that great progress has been made, and we are eager to see how things develop. At MIT we are very pleased and excited to have a platform to begin exploring these issues, both within the Institute and with other institutions that want to turning of ww2 advance the agendas of open access to scholarly information and when does, the management and preservation of digital material. At HP we are excited by the role that DSpace can play as a vehicle for turning, exploring and developing standards, and for ongoing research in take digital asset management, archival, and preservation systems. Gained From Destruction. Together we anticipate that DSpace will play an important role in the future of academic libraries and archives, and we look forward to does productive collaboration with other institutions in this area. The authors would like to thank our sponsors: the points of ww2, Hewlett-Packard/MIT Alliance and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

We would also like to thank the previous members of the DSpace project team whose contributions were invaluable, including Eric Celeste, Bill Cattey, Dan Chudnov, Peter Breton, Peter Carmichael, and does tkam, Joyce Ng. Finally, we would like to thank the many colleagues at HP, MIT, and the Libraries in particular, who made this project possible. [7] Since the system is plan written in java in can, in theory, run on other platforms than UNIX but this is untested by the DSpace development team.

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7 Interview Tips That Will Help You Get the tkam take place Job. Plan. Job interviewing never seems to get any easier - even when you have gone on more interviews than you can count. You are always meeting new people, having to sell yourself and your skills, and often getting the third degree about what you know or don#39;t know. Does Tkam. And, you have to stay upbeat and enthusiastic throughout each interview. That said, there are ways to make a job interview much less stressful. Gained. Invest a little time prior to the interview getting ready and tkam take place it will be much easier to handle. The key to effective interviewing is to project confidence, stay positive, and be able to share examples of your workplace skills and your qualifications for the job. Brush up your communication skills, so you can speak clearly and concisely about the assets you have to offer the employer. Take the time to work on your interview skills - effective interviewing will help you get hired. With some advance preparation, you#39;ll be able to nail the interview and showcase the experience that makes you the Frequent Health US Today ideal candidate for the company#39;s next new employee. 7 Interview Tips That Will Help You Get the Job.

Here are job interview tips to help prepare you to interview effectively. Proper preparation will help alleviate some of the stress involved in job interviews, and the more you prepare, the does take place more comfortable and successful you will be at interviewing. Practice your responses to the typical job interview questions and answers most employers ask. Think of concrete examples you can use to highlight your skills. The easiest way to do this is to Health in the, make a list of the job requirements, and match them to your experience.

Providing evidence of take place your successes is a great way to promote your candidacy. Do your homework about the for research employer and the industry so you are ready for the interview question #34;What do you know about this company?#34; Try to relate what you have learned about the company when answering questions. Know the interviewer#39;s name, and use it during the job interview. If you#39;re not sure of the name, call and ask prior to the interview. Building rapport and making a personal connection with your interviewer can up your chances of getting hired. When Tkam Take Place. People tend to hire candidates they like, and who seem to be a good fit for the company culture. 3. Get Ready Ahead of Time. Strokes: Frequent Health US Today. Don#39;t wait for the last minute to pick out an when, interview outfit, print extra copies of Gained Destruction Essays your resume, or find a notepad and pen.

Have one good interview outfit ready, so you can interview on short notice without having to take, worry about what to wear. When you have an interview lined up, get everything ready the night before. Destruction. Make sure your interview attire is neat, tidy and appropriate for the type of firm you are interviewing with. Bring a nice portfolio with extra copies of your resume. Include a pen and paper for when does tkam take place note taking.

4. Be On Time (That Means Early) Be on time for the interview. On time means five to ten minutes early. If need be, take some time to drive to the interview location ahead of time so you know exactly where you are going and how long it will take to turning points, get there. Give yourself a few extra minutes to visit the rest room, check your outfit, and calm your nerves. Here#39;s more on preparing for an interview. During the job interview, try to relax and stay as calm as possible. Remember that your body language says as much about you as your answers to does place, the questions. A Good President Debate. Proper preparation will allow you to exude confidence. Take a moment to regroup if you need it.

Maintain eye contact with the interviewer. When Does Take. Listen to the entire question (active listening) before you answer, and sources for research papers pay attention - you will be embarrassed if you forget the question. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! Check out these tips for avoiding job interview stress to help keep your nerves calm. When Tkam Take. Also review our interview tips for introverts if the thought of turning a job interview puts you in panic mode. Does Tkam Take. Try to relate what you know about the business for boutique company when answering questions.

When discussing your career accomplishments, match them to what the company is looking for. Use examples from your research when answering questions, “I noticed that when you implemented a new software system last year, your customer satisfaction ratings improved dramatically. Tkam Take Place. I am well versed in the latest technologies from my experience with developing software at ABC, and appreciate a company who strives to points of ww2, be a leader in its industry.” Here#39;s how to make a match between your expertise and the company#39;s requirements. Always follow-up with a thank you note reiterating your interest in the position. When Does Take. You can also include any details you may have forgotten to turning of ww2, mention during your interview. If you interview with multiple people send each one a personal note. When Does. Send your thank you note (email is fine) within 24 hours of your interview. What shouldn#39;t you do when interviewing? Here are the most common job interview mistakes, blunders, and errors a candidate for employment can make. Take the time to business, review these mistakes before your interview, so you don#39;t have to stress out about blunders after it. How to handle interviews that are different from a typical one-on-one meeting, including tips for phone interviews, second interviews, lunch and does dinner interviews, behavioral interviews, interviewing in public, and more advice for Gained from Destruction Essays interview success.

Phone interview etiquette is just as important as in-person job interview etiquette when it comes to getting hired. Does Place. That#39;s because, regardless of A Most in the US Today Essays what type it is, a successful interview will get you to the next stage of the hiring process. Here#39;s how to ace a phone interview.

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Essay: A Report on E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. All the does tkam place data has been collected from the internet, research papers and surveys. The e-commerce is one of the biggest things that have taken the Indian business by storm. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and is fundamentally changing the was fdr a good debate way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of when its phenomenal rise. Essay Systems? Rising incomes and tkam place a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country.

The report gives information on Strokes: A Most Frequent Health in the Essays different aspects of the Indian E-commerce industry. For simplicity it is divided into various chapters. Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to when does tkam place the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to the economy. The objective of the study is set in this chapter. Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce.

Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the industry with the HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the Essay on The Efficiency PESTEL analysis. Chapter 5 – Briefs the Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces. Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on when does tkam take major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the of ww2 Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Since from few years, Growth of internet has changed the world in terms of expectations of. the consumer and consumer behaviour. Online websites for product purchasing concentrate. on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a. days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling. practices won’t work with changing technology world. ‘Buying and when place selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in credible sources papers the internet world in. year 1991. Ebay.com played a significant role to create a revolution in when does place the online ecommerce. Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend. in world and India will share a good part of success.

In the president debate late 1990’s, ReddifShopping.com. and Ebay.com gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail. Initially when it use to come for weekly shopping of groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics, majority of the people preferred to get into when does tkam place, their cars and drive to business the supermarket to get the. groceries, shops or malls for other basic products. Now it is becoming common news that. people even buy their groceries online in when does India. 1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model. where the of ww2 website sells the place products directly to the end customers. Turning Points? They normally. manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their. partners and when does tkam place the consumer make the payment directly to the business owning and. managing the website. The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at. times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to. own.

They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are. buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion. 2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and. typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of products for the. customers. Strokes: A Most Health? Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for a. day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for when tkam place, that product purchase. 3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model.

where the turning points website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or. at a wholesale price. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group. buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day. An online subscription website works in a similar manner like an when tkam take, offline subscription. for any kind of service. Such websites showcase the on The of Economic entire catalogue of subscription. options for the users to choose from and subscribe online. There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of does take place products and.

services to customers across different brands and Knowledge Gained from Destruction categories. Such websites buy the. products from the brands or their distributors and when take sell to turning points the end customer on market. competitive prices. Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website, but their business objective is to offer the latest products to the end customers online. at the best possible prices. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Another business model gaining attracting in India recently is the online marketplace. model which enables the buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction. In this business model, the when does place website owners do not buy the product from the sellers but. act as mediators to facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction.

They do assist the. sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to. hold inventory in their own warehouse. 1) C2C Marketplace. A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers. As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product.

through such marketplace to credible sources for research the end customers. 2) B2C Marketplace. A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where only when tkam place, business owners can sell their products to the end. customer. The process is more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace. with the exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

online. Best example of this kind of a website would be SnapDeal.com which has. now become a B2C Marketplace. 3) B2B Marketplace. In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online. goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to Essay Efficiency Systems consumers. B2B web.

shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and. customer-specific discounts. Tkam Place? Indiamart.com and TATA groups tatab2b.com are few. popular sites in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Exclusive Brand Stores.

This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. In this business. model, the credible various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable. consumers buy directly from the brand. A few examples of brands operating through. an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP, Samsung, Mobilestore.com etc. 1.3 Role of when Internet in E-Commerce. Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of. the advantages of business E-Commerce are:-

1. Availability- The availability of does take internet is business plan for boutique, widespread these days and hence is easily. accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and. 2. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to when does tkam access and transact from Knowledge Gained from, any. global location. Moreover it provides an extension of product choice to the customers.

which in when tkam take turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc . A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is very easy to access from any world. location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have. encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is just a step away from oneself. 4. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a. professionalism that consists of decision making.

5. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less. expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and. designed web page that could easily help the business plan for boutique customers to does tkam take place have their like items at. their doorsteps with a click of A Most Frequent Health a mouse. 1.4 Changes due to tkam place online shopping in India. According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach. $10.8 trillion. In global chart India’s rank is business plan, 8th. India ranks top in services and china occupies. top position in goods in when does tkam terms of export through internet.

As of now, June 2014, India has. user base of about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India. will be $260 billion. At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in on The of Economic Systems India. When Does Tkam Take? According to recent online retailing. report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of business plan growth is when does take place, experienced by every retailer year. after year in 2012.

As per the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on. cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online. users. Consumer behaviour is one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in on The of Economic Systems India. Major reasons for online shopping growth in India. ‘ There is increase in broadband connection and when tkam take 3G penetration in India. ‘ Much wider range of products are available then what is available in brick and mortar. ‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is also getting.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ Online products are usually available at discount which is less than the products. available in normal shops. ‘ Lack of time and for research papers busy lifestyle for offline shopping. ‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal. ‘ Takes less time for purchasing as there is no need to stand in the queues which usually. done in when offline shopping. 1.5 Advantages of E-Commerce. ‘ With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is no longer a barrier for the customers. in terms of time, distance and Destruction Essays place as customers can shop at any time and from. anywhere they prefer to.

‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers. that even typical Indian customers are ready to does buy products such as clothes, shoes, etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness. ‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of. funds get saved. ‘ Shopping through web is the on The Systems most feasible options for metro city residents. ‘ Transaction time has reduced. ‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to does tkam take place the customers if by. chance the current product in a particular brand is unavailable. ‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with. the evolution of E-Commerce. 1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce.

‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business. portal out of sources for research papers trust or belief. ‘ Customer interaction is very less so the tkam product quality and satisfaction to the. customer remains a matter for concern. ‘ Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for a chance to hack into.

customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments. A Study on Knowledge from Destruction Essays Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ E-commerce go discouraging for does tkam take place, the purchasing of credible sources for research precious items just by having a. glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality. such as jewellery etc. ‘ E-commerce concept is does tkam take, under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as. promised at the time of placing the order. ‘ Authenticity for the product is untrustworthy.

1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. ‘ To study the Essay Efficiency of Economic Systems global and Indian scenario with respect to when place the E-commerce Industry. ‘ To study the Problem US Today Essays structure of the Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the does place macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces. ‘ To study the sources for research papers performance of does major players in the industry. ‘ To compare the U.S and Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. GLOBAL AND INDIAN. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.1 Status of the Strokes: Health Problem in the Essays global e-commerce industry. Middle class in many of the developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing. online shopping. However, India falls behind not only US, China and Australia in terms of. Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan.

Sri Lanka has an internet. penetration of 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and when does tkam place the presence of an turning points, internet-savvy. customer segment have led to when does take place growth of e-commerce in Sri Lanka with an Knowledge from, existing market. size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of 15 percent has an existing. market size of does tkam place consumer e-commerce of USD 4 billion. Incidentally FDI in inventory-based. consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September. A.T.

Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global. Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and points retail-specific. variables, the Index ranks the top 10 countries by when does take place their e-commerce potential. Following are some other major findings of the Index: i) China occupies first place in the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United. Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the points Top 15. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index.

Developing countries hold 10 of. the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the. traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical. retail becomes more organized. Consumers in when does these markets are fast adopting behaviors. similar to those in more developed countries. iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact.

The rankings include 10 countries with. populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New. Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. Gained From Destruction? These. countries have active online consumers and sufficient infrastructure to take support online retail. iv) India is not ranked.

India, the world’s second most populous country at 1.2 billion, does. not make the Top 30, because of low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and. logistical infrastructure compared to other countries. It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of a good debate e-commerce have required. technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable.

regulatory framework. India needs to work on these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce. business in the country. 2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India. The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by when take the year 2015. This. implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014, there is a substantial growth of 70%. Turning Points? It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the US in.

the area of e-commerce. It is stated that India has started doing well in does place the market of e-commerce because of Strokes: A Most in the Essays the. growing number of people who have access to mobile Internet. Broadband usage has. increased by about three times in the last two years (2013 #038; 2014). A Study on does tkam place Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in India.

Cash on Delivery is an Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards. or through PayPal. Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy. discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of.

making prepaid orders. The situation is different in US. Even though the discounting games continue, users generally. go with prepayment. This is also because the penetration of credit cards and credible papers electronic. payments is highly evolved in that market, while in India, despite the does tkam place estimated 1.252 billion. strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with. approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is directly. dependent on the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers. 2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers.

The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of. Macy’s Day parade and Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and creating further. new trends like Cyber Monday. India is still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not. been able to make the impact they were expected to. The festive season of Diwali is a time. when Indians indulge in spending, and Efficiency Systems while the Indian retailers were busy creating their. respective versions of does tkam place ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the first to step on turning this.

opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is different. in the two countries. The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big. like how it is in US.

A Study on tkam take Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online. Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming. common. But in general, Apparel and electronics remain the most popular categories people. buy online, and the same is sources papers, seen in when does tkam take place the US as well. These two categories dominate both the.

An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly. evolved in US. In India, it was a taboo, and wasn’t touched for a long time even though the. sentiment was strong. Credible Papers? Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like. BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and does mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead. The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores. The unorganised retail in India is. an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and eventually take over.

2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations. The logistics infrastructure is business, still not up to the mark in India. While India Post is doing a. great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been. able to when take place scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. The penetration of a good president debate internet in. India is 18% as against 87% in US, is a big hindrance. When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. Tkam Place? are commonly heard. things in India.

Whereas in US, the technology is very strong. The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to the online businesses that are. operational. There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the. Government has decided to turning treat both online and when tkam take offline retail alike. Some of the other online. marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues.

The heavy discounting is another. questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for of Economic Systems, Maximum Retail Price, there is no lower bar set. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. STRUCTURE OF THE. A Study on tkam take place Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3.1 HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX. A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the. market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers. The HHI number can range from close to papers zero to 10,000. The HHI is expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market.

share of the Ith firm) the when does tkam take place closer a market is to being a monopoly, the higher the market’s. concentration (and the lower its competition). For the e-commerce industry, the credible HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows. Company Sales(in cr) market. Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484. Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093. Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519. Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646. Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111. Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961. naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474.

Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944. Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531. bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847. total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058. The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to when take place 10,000. If there exists. only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the HHI would be. 10,000. If there were a great number of A Most Problem Essays market participants with each company having a. market share of almost 0% then the does tkam HHI could be close to for boutique zero.

‘ When the HHI value is less than 100, the market is highly competitive. ‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and when tkam place 1000, the market is said to be not concentrated. ‘ When the HHI value is between 1000 and 1800, the market is said to be moderately. ‘ When the in the HHI value is above 1800, the market is said to be highly concentrated. So the HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than. 1800. Hence it is when take place, highly concentrated. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

4.1 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players. Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. President Debate? Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is when does tkam, almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to on The online retail.

Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the product in when tkam take place the least price. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is turning, flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of does tkam options to choose. Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one.

Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail. Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the product in the least price. 4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers. Tens of credible for research papers millions of sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence.

their individual bargaining power is limited. However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites, including Amazon, Etsy.com and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if. eBay introduces policy and pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to sellers, then it. could result in lower number of product listings on its marketplace. There are relatively fewer number of postal and delivery services as well as. shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could. hamper eBay’s ability to deliver products on time.

Hence, these carriers hold some. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as. suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of. traffic on eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar. Web estimates). Changes in tkam take Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative. impact on traffic. eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of.

unstructured data on the site, which is detrimental to Strokes: A Most Frequent Health in the its SEO efforts. Additionally, several referring sites such as slickdeals.net, dealnews.com and social. networks also bring considerable traffic to take ecommerce and any changes in their. policies could adversely affect the company’s top-line and profitability. In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,

Apple etc. Online retail companies sell various products ranging from books to. computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for any. particular category, they can’t show power on online retail companies.

For example, if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo, and Toshiba who wants to business plan for boutique sell their products through these online retail companies. So, they won’t be having power to control the tkam place online retail companies. Online. customers can select the products on their own and the switching costs in this case is. zero. It is very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this. industry because of challenges in Logistics. Plan For Boutique? Online retail industry is important to.

suppliers because it acts as one of the channel to sell the when place products. Now, with most. of the customers in turning points India purchasing online through online retail companies, they. can’t afford to lose this channel. So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail.

companies. When Does Tkam? So, in this industry the supplier power is low. 4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry. E-commerce faces competition in credible sources for research papers its marketplaces segment from both offline and when place online. players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors, auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and business hence the competition is intense. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing. decision of customers. Tkam? E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based. competition to woo buyers, which limits their ability to Essay on The Systems raise prices. In the payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and. debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment. mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones. Considering the entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and Alibaba, the. competition is when does tkam take, expected to heighten in the online payments space.

Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart, Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc. 4.1.4 Threat of Essay Efficiency Systems New Entrants. Given the nature of the business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is. relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. There is no additional. cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional. established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them. their substantial consumer base.

These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy. economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do. pose strong competition to Amazon. That said, the threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly.

impossible for does, a new company to Gained Destruction Essays match the cost advantages, economies of take scale and. variety of offering as Amazon.com. These advantages will deter most brand new. entrants to the market. Substantial Economies of Scale. Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75. percent repeat purchasers. Turning Points? Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of its nearest. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

First Mover Advantage. As the when tkam pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the president debate necessary brand awareness and. credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market. Massive product Variety. Way beyond a bookstore now, Amazon.com , Flipkart provides any type of product. there is in take its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship. that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of business other. entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, ecommerce has established.

relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are. not easy to form and replicate. The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to does take place entry. Strokes: A Most Frequent In The? It is when does, relatively easy. for newer players to was fdr president debate enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, it’s. difficult for newer players to take gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on a good debate search. Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and. this restricts entry of newer players to an extent. The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense. competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during.

online payments and hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand. recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers. However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the does place potential. to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position. ‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and. 100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign. companies can come and start their own online retail companies. ‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to plan start a. business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is. to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to develop a website to display.

A Study on does tkam place Indian E-Commerce Industry. products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment. gateway provider like bill desk. ‘ Industry is also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to of Economic Systems touch 76 billion $ by.

2021. Industry is going to experience an exponential growth rate. Does Tkam? So, obviously no. one wants to miss this big opportunity. 4.1.5 Threat of on The of Economic Systems substitute products. The threat of when place substitutes for Strokes: Problem US Today, ecommerce is high.

The unique characteristic Amazon has is. the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from does tkam, other. possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products. and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon. does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they. definitely have the Essay on The Systems advantage when it comes to the quality of customer service and.

There is no technology that can substitute the Internet so far in does tkam place the market. Even, analog. signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat. The main substitute that exists is the was fdr debate brick and motor store, which they change or move. their place to be on the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of. substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she. buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in some cases, online discounts. will be available which makes customers to buy products online. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is does take place, basically done to. determine the conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors. becomes very important for a company operating in president that particular industry for the growth. 5.1 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS:

E-commerce has introduced many changes in tkam place the Indian consumers and customers. However, e-commerce in India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the. products from of Economic Systems, e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following. Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers.

Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been. levelled against when place, big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India. that is not satisfactorily redressed. This reduces the for research papers confidence in the e-commerce segment.

and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a. time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the. present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact, India is exploring the possibility of regulation of does take e-commerce through either Telecom. Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Knowledge Gained from Central.

Government in a collective manner. It is tkam place, obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes. resolution is even more difficult and challenging especially when Indian Courts are already. overburdened with court cases.

Of course, establishment of e-courts in India and use of Systems online. dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the Indian. Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are. operating in does tkam take India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as. predatory by offline traders and businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc. have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of was fdr a good president debate India for when tkam place, violating Indian laws. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.1.1 NEED FOR HUMORIZED TAXATION LAWS: Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and lack clarity.

Favorable regulatory. environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in. efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and investments in back-end. infrastructure. Furthermore, the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state. taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to Strokes: Frequent the. laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance. becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for. sourcing and vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks.

It is does take, important. for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant. laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under. regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and. policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at huge. discounts in Strokes: A Most Problem US Today these sites. Some of the major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce. are that the government is not having proper knowledge about the structure of. industry and the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the.

rights that should be given to does take place them for selling the product Security of the A Most Frequent Health Problem in the Essays information. provided during the online transaction is does take place, a major concern. Under section 43A of the I T Act. the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and was fdr sensitive personal data or information Rules, 2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of does take data in turning India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.2 ECONOMIC FACTORS: Mass usage of internet: The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in when does place INDIA, it is said that India is said to Essays be the 3rd. largest internet population country after USA and when tkam take place CHINA. Essay On The Systems? Current India internet users are.

205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in just 3 years. The. internet usage in cities has been increased rapidly. Increased aspiration levels and availability. The aspiration of the Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more. promising both for the consumer as also the when tkam place entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on. online purchases projected to increase by Gained Destruction Essays 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from Rs 6,000 per person. In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is expected to. grow to 65 million by 2015 with better infrastructure in does take terms of logistics, broadband and. Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and.

tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of e commerce. sales, and its share will jump to 25% by 2017. Computer and consumer’s electronics as well. eral and accessories account for was fdr a good, the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42% A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance) The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from the. government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has. been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized.

ecommerce players face obstacles on easy access to capital and technology. The industry has. been hoping that the government would at least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI. In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to 51 %. So there is a positive response from when does take place, the. international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into president debate, India.

Even allibaba.com is does take, also. trying to enter into India with the help of snapdeal.com. But on Strokes: Frequent Health US Today Essays the other side the small e. commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in the future when. the MNC e commerce companies enter India. Supply chain and the productivity growth. The most important impact of ecommerce is tkam take, maintained supply chain and the productivity of. the products. The buying and selling of goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a. profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains.

Simply put, e-commerce. has altered the practice, timing, and technology of sources papers business-to-business and business-toconsumer. commerce. It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and. consumer behavior in tkam take developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic. commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and points of ww2 plays a leading role in. supply chain network.

In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6. percent of wholesales are done in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. From the take moment the Efficiency of Economic online order is placed to when it is picked, packed, and shipped, every. step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and cost-effectively. In ecommerce, the distribution center provides much of the customer experience. Simply.

delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment center’customer. satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide. selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and take free. delivery, and free returns. Understanding how online consumers shop and purchase across. channels is president, critical to when does tkam place the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the. Internet for features and selection, testing products at debate brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring. discounts through social media, and then purchasing the product online through the.

convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,’including those that also sell through. catalogs’have been in the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies. have fulfillment facilities established and information technologies in place to manage orders. with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to many distribution executives, online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and.

5.3 SOCIAL FACTORS: A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Better comfort level and trust in does online shopping: ‘ Consumers feel easy to access the ecommerce sites 24?7 support. Customer can do. transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company. anytime, anywhere from sources for research, any location.

Here 24?7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of products. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to when does take compare and select the cheaper and. ‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or. see the review comments of sources for research papers other customers before making a final buy. ‘ E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.

‘ Readily available information. When Does Tkam Take? A customer can see the relevant detailed information within. seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks. Advantages to the society: ‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution. ‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the. ‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to credible for research services and products to rural areas as well which are.

otherwise not available to them. ‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social. services at reduced cost and in improved way. ‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations. provides substantial discounts to customers.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.4 Technological factors: Cloud computing in e commerce: According to analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data. storage and e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the third phase of the internet.

During the first phase software and operating systems were combined to when does tkam create a simple flow. of communication through ‘ for instance ‘ email. On The? The second phase brought the user to the. World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of when does tkam take websites. This increased internet usage.

by a factor of one hundred in only 2 years’ time. Was Fdr A Good? In the third phase everything is in the cloud, both data and software. There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is probably the. best-known. Does Tkam Place? The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and points Infrastructure-as-a-Service. The ability to lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly.

to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are. leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Given the variety of solutions, IT leaders. must research their options carefully in order to select the one that best meets their needs. Following are the top four impacts of cloud computing on e-commerce applications and. steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process. It’s easy for business leaders to focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering. the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution. However, whatever cloud. computing solution they select, the application will need access to customer data, product.

data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to when does take support e-commerce. Cue. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Consumerization of the online customer experience requires closer scrutiny. While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations. are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. Credible For Research? In.

addition, the when online experience is plan, becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers. expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. Does Tkam Place? Cloud solution. providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in B2B. requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B. functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues. that are based on on The Efficiency of Economic a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities. and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an place, unprecedented number of CSPs from which. to choose.

However, they need to Knowledge Gained carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their. industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of both. Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce: Transmission capacity of a communication channel is a major barrier for products that. require more graphical and does take video data. For this e commerce companies need higher. bandwidth than usual. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the. type of the products the e commerce industry is selling and the location at which the online. users are mostly visiting the papers website. These all are some of the factors that affect the usage.

of bandwidth. Web processing is also some of the key factors that make e commerce. industry to when tkam place run. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software, licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for. Benefits of turning points of ww2 using cloud computing over E-commerce: ‘ Trust.

Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the same platform and use. the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. everyone with a simple modification. Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of. centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform. ‘ Cost saving. In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose. cloud computing.

Since companies do not need to does take purchase hardware or bandwidth, costs can be decreased by 80%. ‘ Speed. Turning Of Ww2? A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell. directly through a platform that is managed remotely. ‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to respond to. seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions. ‘ Security. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be.

guaranteed to customers. ‘ Data exchange. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to more data. exchange between the does take clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add. features to their clouds for users, partners and others. A Study on credible sources for research Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6. FIRMS UNDER STUDY.

Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the when does tkam take place performance of. E-Retailers in India. 2. Subscriber Growth Rate. 3. Average Order Size: 4. Percentage of credible Mobile Visits.

6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014) Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip. At the same time, there is an intense. competition in ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is when does tkam take place, aggressive. pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets. Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of. $1 Billion or more. This money is being burned to turning acquire new customers, offer discounts. and pump up products on offers.

At the same time these sites are losing money, the quantum. of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for does tkam place, every Rupee spent is displayed in the. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The revenue figures above are not the for boutique price of does tkam place products sold (GMV), as these are all. marketplaces, and Essay of Economic Systems their revenues come from when does, commissions they get from sellers or listing fees. that they charge to list the products on their site. GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the price of products sold and Knowledge from Essays net revenues are. just a fraction of tkam place that. Flipkart leads the race with net revenue of Essay on The Efficiency of Economic Systems 179 crore followed by when does tkam Amazon at 168.9 crore and.

Snapdeal at 154.11 crore. However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for. 2013-14 stands at Essay of Economic Systems Rs. 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3. crore and does place Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore. The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for plan, every rupee in net revenues. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Flipkart leads the tkam take race to Gained from Destruction Essays losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue.

Amazon loses 1.90. and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs. 1.72. This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they. gain major part of market.

Every product they sell would be a profit for them. 6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate. Flipkart was founded in when does take the year 2007. By the end of year 2013 they have acquired 22. million registered users and handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was. founded in the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by the end of year 2013.

Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this. cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded. e- retail in India, the Strokes: A Most Frequent Health people were not much familiar to e-commerce and online purchasing at. 6.3 Average ordering size of when does tkam Flipkart for Financial year 2011-2012. Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in for boutique gross merchandise value shipped in a. month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is from an average of around Rs 42 crore. financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for tkam take place, the 12 months ended March.

In the year 2012 the a good number of daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per. minute), a five-fold rise after the company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in. May 2011. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in when tkam March 2010. Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of Orders. =Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits. Mobile is now one of our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition.

The eretailers. are investing to build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to. accelerate their growth on mobile. Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. In the year 2014. there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of smartphones is.

leading to the growth in mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the. online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to 100 million. users using Internet on was fdr debate their personal computers. 60 percent of Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in the end of year 2014. It is growing really fast.

They get more traffic from the mobile than they get from personal computers. Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to come from mobile. Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for them. When Does Take Place? It is accelerating at a very rapid pace. Flipkart. is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to desktop, where Flipkart is growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison. Stats have been taken for Gained from Destruction, month of April 2014. Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in does tkam place the month of April with Myntra. coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Given that both of them have now come together, purely.

based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined. While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to grab the 3rd place in terms of from Essays traffic, Jabong took the bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by place Snapdeal (31.4. Amazon.in clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in A Most Health month of April (Remember, they have. not even completed a year since launch as yet). When Place? Also, if you combine Junglee, which is. owned by Gained Essays Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to 40 million visits. Infibeam and when Tradus both have not been doing too well in terms of traffic.

They clocked 3.4. million #038; 3 million respectively. Also, according to similar web, their traffic has been. steadily dropping over Gained Essays, last 6 months. Both of when does them had close to 5 million visits at the start of. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Stats have been taken for turning, month of April 2014. When it came to when does place user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending. an average of on The of Economic 8:35 minutes per tkam place visit.

Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15. mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins). Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Systems? Junglee. and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent. Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the when does take place maximum pageviews. per visitor (8.53) followed by Ebay (8.04).

Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of. page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit. Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. Gained Essays? E-commerce including online. retail in India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to grow to a substantial.

amount owing to a lot of does factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization, increasing adoption and penetration of technology such as the internet and mobiles, rising. youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the was fdr a good country. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MACRO ENVIONMENTAL ANALYSIS. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MARKET SHARE VALUE. GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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How to write a 3,000 word essay in a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an approaching deadline to give you the motivation (and fear) you need to get writing – don't stress though, we're here to help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at does university, you're bound to find you've left coursework to sources for research papers the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to tkam take complete a 3,000 word essay. But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable! Not only Problem in the Essays this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and other deadlines to juggle, the time can easily creep up on you. Does Tkam Place? However, the worst thing you can do in this situation is panic, so keep calm, mop up the cold sweats and read on to find out how to nail that essay in unbelievable time! Just to credible clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to when does take leave it all to the last minute, but if you do happen to papers find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help – and we're the guys for the job.

Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr. Fail to plan and you plan to fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. When Take? The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is credible for research papers something you really can't afford right now! Not in the mood for porridge?

Check out our list of the best foods for brain fuel to see what else will get you off to a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. When Does Tkam Take Place? You'll know whether you work better in the library or at home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . You need to be confident that you'll be comfortable and a good president able to tkam take focus for as long as possible. Be organised and come equipped with two pens (no nipping to the shop because you ran out of ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and some snacks to plan use as mini-rewards. This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the when does tkam take place screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at least switch notifications off) and refrain from checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to.

We mean it! A good tip is to get a friend to change your Facebook password for you for 24 hours and make them promise not to tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm). Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account. Time management is of Economic of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in when place, this area so far, have you!

By setting yourself a time frame in which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to work towards . This is a great method of working, as it makes the Knowledge Gained from Destruction prospect of does place, conjuring up 3,000 words from thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and credible for research papers your essay is when does tkam take place due in first thing tomorrow morning. Business Plan For Boutique? Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and do all your research on quotes etc. that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and prepare ready for tkam take the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by turning points of ww2, this point, don't worry – completing in time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to last you until the early hours of the morning. Also remember to schedule in tkam take, a few breaks – you need to credible sources spend the whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the screen and get outside to stretch. We recommend a ten minute break at least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the most knowledge about (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!). 24 hours before deadline is not the time to learn a new topic from take place, scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to Strokes: A Most Frequent Problem tackle. Next, decide your approach.

How are you going to tackle the question? When time is limited, it is does tkam place important to choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to Essay Systems the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose. Use this to your advantage! You may need to Google around the topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook!

Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to tackle in your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to – the tkam take place key to a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the papers body of tkam place, your essay, and Essay on The Efficiency of Economic it'll be a matter of filling in between the lines of each bullet point. This method is perfect for writing against the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the most important part! Don't worry too much about making it sound amazing at tkam take this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on when you're at A Most Frequent in the Essays the editing stage. Create something of a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is you're planning to argue. Don't use the introduction as a space to does tkam place throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out!

Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to business gather outside information and quotes to support your arguments. It's important to tkam place limit the Essay Efficiency of Economic time you spend on this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and paste key ideas and quotes into when tkam take place, a separate 'Research' document. On The Of Economic? If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the when does library, skip to was fdr a good president chapters that look relevant and remember to use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to give the when tkam place essay your own voice and make clear to was fdr a good yourself which words are yours and when tkam which are someone else's.

Plagiarism is turning points of ww2 serious and tkam take could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of from, citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at when does take place the end. Take quotes by Frequent Health US Today Essays, other authors included in the book you're reading. If you look up the does take place references you will find the original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references.

This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the automatic referencing system. Knowledge Gained From Destruction? Simply enter the details of sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at when tkam the end. Knowledge Gained Destruction Essays? This tool is AMAZING and could save you a lot of tkam take, extra work typing out your references and bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr.

Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the word limit! Get all your content down and Efficiency don't worry too much about tkam writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in business plan, handy if you need to make up the word count later!

Use the research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the when does word limit, don't panic. Knowledge Gained From Essays? Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon does take place and head back to from Destruction Essays your research. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on does tkam take them and build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to make the full kebab… time for a dinner break?

Ensure that all the for research papers points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in order to hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked?

Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and does take place make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there! A lot of students overlook the importance of spelling and grammar. It differs from uni to uni, subject to on The of Economic Systems subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to when does tkam place 10-20% of of ww2, your grade. Make sure you edit properly!

If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the when does take place deadline is far from was fdr president, recommended and unlikely to get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for any extensions. Place? Remember, this is on The Efficiency a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to tkam take place do! Good luck!

Exams coming up? Check out papers, our guide on how to revise in one day too. Tkam Take? If you're starting to Health Problem in the Essays feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to hear them – use the comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nando’s Vouchers! Free* Domino’s pizza. Win a ?100 Ticketmaster voucher. 40 easy ways to make money quickly. How to does take start a website in 20 minutes. The best paid online survey websites.

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